Cesar Milstein was an Argentinian biochemist and immunologist who was bestowed with Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1984 for his path-breaking work in the development of monoclonal antibodies. The work made him one of the most important scientists of the 20th century and his discovery one of the most important discoveries of the 20th century. A University of Buenos Aires alumnus, Milstein’s research in the field of immunology and immunogenetics began when he acted upon Frederick Sanger’s suggestion. Previously working on enzymology, Milstein shifted his focus to immunology. He collaborated with Georges Kohler to develop the hybridoma technique for the production of monoclonal antibodies. The duo pioneered the seminal technique for the production of monoclonal antibodies which created a rage in the scientific society. In 1975, they came up with a paper that published their discovery and later also displayed the clinical application. Apart from the discovery of monoclonal antibody, Milstein researched on the structure of antibodies and their genes, through the investigation of DNA and RNA. This research became fundamental for a better understanding of the functioning of the human immune system. In his lifetime, Milstein was showered with prestigious scientific awards and became a member of numerous scientific societies and institutions.
Milstein concentrated on the study of antibodies, the protein organisms generated by the immune system to combat and deactivate antigens. His efforts were aimed at analysing myeloma proteins (tumors in cells that produce antibodies), and later DNA and RNA.