Elmar Schnee has served as a member of our board of directors since August 2014 and previously served as a director of Gentium S.p.A.(now a subsidiary of Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc) from May 2012 until April 2014. Since April 2017, Mr. Schnee has served as Chairman of Santhera Pharmaceuticals Holding AG, a specialty pharmaceutical company. Since June 2016, he has served as a management advisor to MindMaze SA, a neuro-technology company, where he also served as Chief Operating Officer from June 2016 to April 2017. From November 2013 to August 2015, Mr. Schnee served as a non-executive director of Cardiorentis Ltd., a biopharmaceutical company, where he served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer from October 2011 until November 2013. From 2003 to 2011, Mr. Schnee held various positions at Merck KGaA, a global pharmaceutical and chemical group. He joined Merck KGaA in 2003 as Managing Director of Merck Santé S.A.S. In January 2004, Mr. Schnee assumed responsibility for global operations of the ethical pharmaceuticals division of Merck KGaA, and in November 2005, Mr. Schnee was appointed as Deputy Member of the Executive Board responsible for the pharmaceuticals business. In 2006, he was appointed as a member of the Executive Board and General Partner of Merck KGaA, with responsibility for global pharmaceutical activities, and served in this position until 2011. Prior to Merck KGaA, Mr. Schnee held senior positions in strategy, business development and marketing at UCB SA, Sanofi-Synthélabo SA, Migliara/Kaplan Associates, Inc. and Fisons Pharmaceuticals PLC. In addition, Mr. Schnee currently serves on the boards of directors of two pharmaceutical companies, Stallergenes-Greer and Santhera Pharmaceuticals Holding AG and four privately held life sciences companies. Mr. Schnee holds both a bachelor’s degree in marketing and a master’s degree in marketing and general management from the Swiss Institute of Business Administration in Zurich.